with the marginal comments of Tsar Nicholas I, translated by Robert C. Howes, introduction and notes by Lwrence D. Orton, Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, 1977
* 1814, † 1876
Prison: Peter and Paul Fortress, St. Petersburg (Map)
The manuscript of Bakunin's confession was discovered in the archives of the secret police after the February 1917 revolution. Written by Bakunin in solitary confinement in the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, the Confession covers the prisoner's life from his arrival in Berlin in 1840 to his arrest by the Saxon police in May 1848 for his part in the abortive Dresden uprising.
The motives that prompted his confession are still in dispute. As a psychological document, the Confession defies facile classification. It shows Bakunin disillusioned by political failure yet undaunted in spirit.