"Frau Dr. Rosa Luxemburgs sogenannte Junius Broschüre" (Eine Gefängnisarbeit von Frau Dr. Rosa Luxemburg, alias "Junius"), A. Hoffmanns Verlag, Berlin, 1916
* 1870, Zamość, Russia-Poland, † 1919, Berlin, Germany
Charge: Critical Political Writings
Prison: Women's Prison, Barnimstrasse, Berlin (Map)
In August 1914 Luxemburg, along with Karl Liebknecht, Clara Zetkin, Franz Mehring, founded the Internationale group; it became the Spartacist League on In January 1916. They wrote illegal, anti-war pamphlets pseudonymously signed "Spartacus" (after the slave-liberating Thracian gladiator who opposed the Romans); Luxemburg's pseudonym was "Junius" (after Lucius Junius Brutus, founder of the Roman Republic).
The Spartacist League vehemently rejected the SPD's support for the war, trying to lead Germany's proletariat to an anti-war general strike. As a result, in June 1916 Luxemburg was imprisoned for two and a half years, as was Karl Liebknecht. During imprisonment, she was twice relocated, first to Posen (Poznań), then to Breslau (Wrocław). Friends smuggled out and illegally published her articles. Among them was "The Russian Revolution", criticising the Bolsheviks, presciently warning of their dictatorship. Nonetheless, she continued calling for a "dictatorship of the proletariat", albeit not the one-party Bolshevik model. In that context, she wrote "Freiheit ist immer die Freiheit des Andersdenkenden" ("Freedom is always, and exclusively, freedom for the one who thinks differently"). Another article, published in June 1916, was "Die Krise der Sozialdemokratie" ("The Crisis of Social Democracy").
During this time of prison Rosa Luxemburg also wrote "Die Akkumulation des Kapitals oder Was die Epigonen aus der Marxschen Theorie gemacht haben. Eine Antikritik.", Franke, Leipzig, 1921. (The Accumulation of Capital, or What the Epigones Have Made of Marx's Theory. An Anti-Critique., in: Rosa Luxemburg and Nikolai Bukharin Imperialism and the Accumulation of Capital., Edited with an Introduction by Kenneth J. Tarbuck., Allen Lane The Penguin Press, London, 1972, pp 45-150)